The 2013 Red Ocean hurricane season was the most active hurricane season in recorded history of the Red Ocean, as well as the costliest and deadliest since 2008.The season officially began on June 1, 2013, and ended on November 30, 2013, dates that conventionally delimit the timeframe for tropical cyclone formation. However, the season started slightly early with the formation of Tropical Depression One, which further intensified into Tropical Storm Anabela, showing that the formation of tropical cyclones are possible at any time during 2013. Days later, the season later shattered a record, becoming the first season to feature two tropical storms in May in reliable records following the formation of Tropical Storm Barry on May 28, which later became Hurricane Barry, the second hurricane to ever exist in May. Next, on June 6, Tropical Storm Christina formed, shattering the earliest date for a season's third storm formation. Eventually, on June 19, Daniel shattered the earliest date for a season's fourth storm formation. On June 26, following the naming of Tropical Storm Emily, the season broke the record for earliest fifth named storm by 13 calendar days. As the following storms, Fernando, Grace, Howie, Ingrid, Joelle, Katya, Liam and Marcella came along, they also shattered records for earliest named storms for those respective letters. The month of September was later unusually quiet, with only three storms forming, versus the average of 4. The current month, October, has had three tropical cyclones, where for the first time in October, there was three tropical cyclone active at the same time, Vance, Wendi, and Alef. On October 20, Wendi became the most intense hurricane of the season, and third most intense in the entire Red Ocean. The names Daniel, Emily, Howie, Liam, Ophelia and Wendi were retired at the retirement conference at the end of the season.
On May 23, an area of low pressure off of a cold front started rapidly organizing, and it later became the first cyclone of the season on May 24, forming eight days earlier than the start of the actual hurricane season. Next, the storm was given the name Anabela after intensifying to a tropical storm. However, the next day, Anabela was absorbed into the cold front it first formed from, after reaching its peak intensity of 45 mile per hour (mph) (70 kilometres per hour (km/h)) and 1002 millibars/hectopascals (mbar/hPa) (29.59 inches of mercury (inHg)). Anabela was the first tropical storm to form in May since 2008.
From May 26 to 27, the NHC monitored a tropical wave which emerged off of the coast of Jamali. After about 48 hours of development, the system began to rapidly organize, and a nearby ship reported 45 mph winds. This later prompted the NHC to issue advisories on Tropical Storm Barry, the second tropical storm of the season. Barry's formation made the 2013 Red Ocean hurricane season the only season to have two tropical storms from in May. The hurricane is currently forecast to move northwestward, and gradually strengthen before reaching unfavorable conditions. Upon forming, Barry's center of circulation was partially exposed, as noted on satellite imagery. Barry later became the second hurricane to ever form in May, the last time was in 1926. On May 31, Barry was downgraded to a 50 mph tropical storm, and it dissipated soon thereafter. However, Barry's remnants persisted for another day until reaching the Jared Isles on June 1 with showers and thunderstorms until they dissipated. Barry caused minimal damage on the isles and no deaths were attributed to the storm.
On June 5, an area of low pressure formed near the Jared Isles, partially from the breakoff of a tropical wave. The NHC stated conditions were very favorable for tropical cyclone development, and the next day, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft mission was carried out. A closed circulation was found in the system with 40 mph winds, prompting the NHC to classify the storm as Tropical Storm Christina. Upon its formation, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued for the Jared Isles. Twenty-four hours later, Christina reached its peak winds of 60 mph. Late on June 7, Christina made landfall near Kingville with 55 mph winds. The winds later decreased to 50 mph during a special NHC update. On June 8, the last advisory on Christina was issued as it became a convectionless vortex due to dry air. Following the storm, there were two deaths associated with surfing on dangerous rip currents.
On June 17, a tropical wave organized to become a low pressure area. After being mentioned on the NHC outlook on June 18, it was given a 30% chance of tropical cyclone formation. About 24 hours later, after a Hurricane Hunter aircraft was sent into the storm, it was confirmed it had become Tropical Depression Four and advisories were initiated by the NHC. Upon formation, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued for most of the Jared Isles. On June 20, as a result of a Hurricane Hunter mission, Tropical Depression Four became Tropical Storm Daniel with 45 mph winds. After lasting about 24 hours as a tropical storm, the NHC downgraded it into a post-tropical cyclone after it made landfall near Kingville, Jared Isles. As a result of the storm, twelve deaths had been reported, and the damage amounted to 906 million, the costliest tropical cyclone to hit the Jared Isles since 2011.
A tropical wave emerged off of the Jamali coast on June 23. Over the next day or two, the system started gradually organizing, and formed a well-defined center. On June 25, after a sudden increase in convection over an exposed circulation, advisories were written for Tropical Depression Five. Five then later started to tighten up, and eventually was classified as Tropical Storm Emily. The system later then undergone a period of rapid intensification, and on June 28, Hurricane Hunters found winds of hurricane force. This prompted the NHC to issue hurricane watches and warnings for the Jared Isles.
Following intensification to hurricane status, flash flood warnings and watches were issued. The local National Weather Service had stated it was possible that the city of Kingville may experience one of the worst floods in over a decade. On June 29, the NWS put East Island, the largest island of the Jared Isles, which houses the major cities of Kingville and Clarkston were put on a high hazard risk. The Western Isle and Midway Isle were put on low and moderate risks, respectively, for storm surge.
A few hours before landfall, the NWS and NHC announced that a funnel cloud was spotted off of Kingville Shores. In addition, Clarkston International Airport had reported four inches of rain. This closed runways and halted all of its flights. Emily made landfall on late June 29 with winds of 100 mph. Severe damage had been reported in the Kingville and Clarkston areas. Damage was also suffered at the Clarkston International Airport. Emily later weakened overland and eventually became a convectionless vortex due to dry air surrounding the system. Emily produced 126 fatalities. On July 3, the President of the Jared Isles, Jacob Perry announced the damage totals were around 6 billion dollars throughout the Isles, which put the hurricane as the 2nd most costliest hurricane in their recorded history, behind Darell in 2005.
The origins from Fernando were complex. A low pressure formed on July 3 from the combined remnants of Hurricane Emily and a tropical wave. Over the next two days, the system started organizing and showing signs off organization. Eventually, on July 5, after a Hurricane Hunter aircraft flight, it was found Tropical Storm Fernando had formed. On July 6, President of Marlton, Kay Peters, announced a flood warning and state of emergency. Fernando eventually made landfall on Holmdale in Marlton late on July 6 with winds just below hurricane strength. By July 7, Fernando had rapidly weakened into a tropical depression. By the early afternoon of July 8, Fernando had lost its circulation and dissipated.
On July 8, a low pressure area split off of a cold front and became a cold-core low. It had tropical storm gale force winds along with it. On July 9, the NHC gave the system a 40% chance of tropical cyclone development. A day later, on July 10, after gaining organization in both convection and banding, it was upgraded into Tropical Storm Grace. Grace shattered the record for earliest seventh named storms, as the previous record was set in 2003. On July 11, Grace unexpectedly strengthened into a category one hurricane. Later that night, Grace began to start weakening, and on July 12, after rapidly weakening, Grace weakened back into a tropical storm. On July 13, Grace became a post-tropical cyclone as it raced toward the Wagner Coast.
On July 6, a tropical wave left the coast of Jamali. As the tropical wave headed gradually westward, it started gaining organization. Over the next couple of days, it formed a low pressure area and gained organization. Eventually, on July 10, after a sudden flare in convection and banding became evident on satellite imagery, it was then classified as Tropical Depression Eight. Upon formation, Eight was an unusual cyclone, as it later took the title as smallest tropical cyclone recorded in the Red Ocean. On July 11, Eight became Tropical Storm Howie. On July 12, after a strengthening trend, Howie became a Category One hurricane. As stated by the NHC, due to an unexpected northwest turn, Howie's track moved northward to reflect a possible landfall somewhere on East Island on July 15 as a Category Three hurricane. Eventually, on July 13, Howie had rapidly strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane. On July 14, Howie reached Category 4 intensity. According to an aircraft on July 15, Howie had reached Category 5 intensity, the first Category 5 in the ocean since Hurricane Joanna in 2012. On July 16, following a Hurricane Hunter mission, it was found Howie had slightly weakened into a Category 4 hurricane due to an eyewall replacement cycle. Eventually, as Howie started approaching the Marlton-Granolia border, it weakened into a Category 3 hurricane, while a major evacuation was called for in the area, an even larger one than Hurricane Emilia in 2007. On the night of July 17, Howie made its second landfall near Joy. Over the next 24 hours, Howie moved more and more inland, and eventually rapidly weakened into a tropical storm. On July 18, the NHC discontinued tropical cyclone advisories on Howie as it was departing the basin. After a final count, the deaths released was 145 deaths, and 3 indirect deaths.
On July 9, a tropical wave exited the coast of Jamali. Over the course of the next five days, the system had started gradually organizing as it met more favorable conditions. Eventually, on July 14, after a Hurricane Hunter flight, it was upgraded into Tropical Depression Nine. On July 15, after slowly organizing, it was upgraded into Tropical Storm Ingrid. Eventually, over the next 24 hours, Ingrid began to weaken in both convection and its circulation. On July 16, after a Hurricane Hunter mission, it was found Ingrid had degenerated into an open wave north of East Island. The next day, the remnant open wave was mentioned by the NHC to have a 30% chance of redevelopment. However the wave disorganized again before any redevelopment could occur.
On July 22, a tropical wave had split off of the Tropical Cyclone Formation Belt of of the Jamali coastline. The wave later became stationary, and it began to slowly organizing. Eventually, on July 25, after a rapid increase in convection near the center and report of tropical storm force winds by a ship, advisories were initiated on Tropical Storm Joelle, the tenth tropical cyclone of the season, as it skipped tropical depression status. Joelle then eventually began a slow strengthening trend, and it became a moderate tropical storm on July 26. In the next day, Joelle strengthened even more to reach minimal Category 1 status. Joelle eventually peaked out with 85 mph winds of July 28. Joelle then weakened back into a tropical storm a day later. Joelle eventually became a post-tropical cyclone on July 30 before making any significant impact to any land masses.
On July 26, a tropical wave emerged off of the coast of Jamali. As the wave headed westward very slowly, conditions became increasingly favored for formation, on July 29, advisories were initiated on Tropical Depression Eleven. After strengthening in the overnight hours, the depression was furthur upgraded into Tropical Storm Katya. After reaching a peak intensity of 45 mph a couple hours after, Katya eventually began to quickly weaken, and was downgraded into a tropical depression on July 31. On August 1, Katya degenerated into an open wave to the east of the Jared Isles. After gradually reorganized for the next couple of days, a Hurricane Hunter mission confirmed the system associated with the remnants of Katya had regenerated into a tropical depression. However, after less than 24 hours, Katya opened back up into a tropical wave due to intense wind shear.
On August 4, a low pressure area split off of a stationary cold front offshore the Wagner Coast. The next day, the NHC noted the area had a 20% chance of formation into a tropical cyclone. Over the next day or so, the system continued to organize, and a special Air Force Airplane mission confirmed Tropical Storm Liam had formed on August 6. Upon formation, tropical storm warnings and a hurricane watch was posted for the Wagner Coast. A day later, Liam continued to strengthen, and was later upgraded into a hurricane, and hurricane warnings were issued for the first time ever on the Wagner Coast, prompting major evacuations. A day later after moving into the coast, Liam was downgraded into a post-tropical cyclone as it was in the process of becoming absorbed into a cold front, however advisories by the NHC continued because it remained a significant threat to the Wagner Coast. However, the NHC discontinued advisories 24 hours after because the circulation had fully dissipated. On August 10, helicopters investigated Liam's aftermath up from above, and the final damage estimate was set at 13 billion, with the bulk of damages on the shore.
On August 4, a tropical wave emerged off of the coast of Jamali. As the wave headed westward, it gained organization. Eventually, on August 7, satellite images indicated and confirmed that a tropical depression had formed. Then, just a few hours later, it was upgraded into Tropical Storm Marcella had formed. Marcella eventually began to gradually strengthen, and was later upgraded into a strong tropical storm on August 8. Then, over the next 24 hours, Marcella began a period of rapid intensification, and became a strong Category 1 hurricane. Marcella then continued to then slowly strengthen, and became a Category 2 on August 10. However, Marcella slightly weakened that evening into a minimal Category 2 hurricane, based on Hurricane Hunter data. Eventually, Marcella began to rapidly weaken over the next day, and became a tropical storm on the afternoon of August 11. The next day, Marcella restrengthened back into a hurricane as it headed away from the Jared Isles. Then, over the next 24 hours, Marcella entered a period of rapid intensification, and became a strong Category 2 hurricane once again on the night of August 12. Marcella then peaked as a strong Category 3 hurricane the next day. However, over the next several hours, Marcella began a rapid weakening trend, and was downgraded into a strong Category 1 hurricane on August 14. The system then moved over colder water, and became extratropical on August 15.
On August 10, an area of disturbed weather formed a couple hundred miles to the south of the Jared Isles. Over the next couple of days, it later organized into a well-defined low pressure area, and on the evening of August 12, the NHC upgraded the system into a tropical depression. A few hours later, the depression made landfall on South Beach in the Jared Isles, causing torrential downpours and gusty winds. The system later traveled northward through the isles that night, with little to no change in strength. As it headed away from the area, the system hit favorable conditions, and became a tropical storm and was named Nathaniel on August 14. Over the next day or so, Nathaniel continued to organize and became a hurricane in the late afternoon hours of August 15. Nathaniel continued to strengthen into August 16, and became a Category 2 hurricane that night. A few hours later, Nathaniel moved over colder water, and began a rapid weakening trend, and weakened into a strong tropical storm on August 17. The next day, convection waned significantly enough to consider Nathaniel a post-tropical low.
On August 13, a tropical wave had emerged off of the coast of Jamali. The wave slowly moved westward under favorable environmental conditions, and three days later, a tropical depression was declared in the area because of increased organization. The next day, the depression strengthened enough to reach tropical storm strength, and was named Ophelia. Ophelia then began to quickly strengthen, and the system began to organize an eyewall. The next day, after the eyewall was completed, Ophelia became a hurricane. Ophelia eventually continued to stengthen, and became a Category 2 hurricane on August 19. Strengthening continued into August 20, and was then declared a strong Category 3 hurricane. After entering colder waters and experiencing land interaction, Ophelia slightly weakened. However, after moving away, Ophelia started to strengthen again, and later gained winds of Category 4 force on August 23. Then, as Ophelia headed into the morning hours of August 24, and went through rapid intensification, and later became a Category 5 hurricane, and also the most northermost of its kind in reliable records in the Red Ocean. After beginning to experience colder water the next day, Ophelia was downgraded into a Category 4 hurricane. Weakening eventually continued over the next day or so as Ophelia entered colder pockets of water, and strong dry air to its north. Ophelia eventually transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on August 28 over colder water in the northern Red Ocean. In the Jared Isles, 7 billion dollars was reported in damages, which added on to damage by Emily and Howie earlier in the year.
On August 14, a tropical wave merged with a low pressure area. Over the next few days, the system would slowly organize, and on August 17, after a ship reported tropical storm force winds and satellite images indicated a closed circulation, NHC started writing advisories on Tropical Storm Philip. Philip later made landfall near Joy, Granolia early the next morning, and rapidly weakened into a tropical depression in the afternoon of August 18. A few hours later, Philip had completely dissipated overland.
On August 22, a tropical wave emerged off the Jamalian coast. Because of unfavorable winds and dry air around the system, the system struggled to organize, and only organized slowly. After gaining sufficient circulation and convection around the center, the NHC started writing advisories on Tropical Depression Seventeen on the evening of August 27. The next day, intense wind shear and unusally dry air degenerated the system back into an open wave. The remnants of Seventeen eventually continued to move westward during the next several days, and brought 1-2 inches of rainfall to the Jared Isles, which was associated with the remnants.
A subtropical low was first noted on September 9, as it was situated in moderate atmospheric wind shear. After slowly organizing over the next few days, because of increased organization, a Hurricane Hunter investigated the circulation and outer convection, and later confirmed Tropical Storm Rachel had formed. However, because of the proximity to a cold front and dry air, Rachel began weakening the day after, and eventually dissipated on September 14.
An area of disturbed area formed on September 23 slightly south of the Jared Isles. As the system moved northward, it later gradually organized as it moved away from the Jared Isles. On September 26, after the system gained a well-defined closed circulation, it was upgraded into the Tropical Depression Nineteen. Then, due to increased organization under light shear, Nineteen was named Sam, and it went through a period of rapid intensification. As Sam gained organization, the system strengthened into a hurricane on the evening of September 28, and peaked with 85 mph winds the next day. Then, a day later, Sam began rapidly weakening, and began to start an extratropical transition as it accelerated toward the Wagner Coast. It fully completed its extratropical transition on the evening of October 1.
A tropical wave crossed the Jamalian coastline on September 27. Upon emerging, the wave was located in light wind shear and minimal dry air. Due to this, the wave later developed a closed circulation, and was upgraded into Tropical Storm Terri, skipping tropical depression status. Over the next couple days, Terri strengthened slightly, and degenerated into an open wave on the morning of October 2. The remnants of Terri currently have a 60% chance of redevelopment either into a tropical depression or a tropical storm on October 9. Late that night, Terri regenerated back into a weak and poorly-organized tropical depression. However, the next day, Terri weakened back into an extratropical cyclone as it tracked towards the Wagner Coast.
An area of disturbed weather formed to the western side of the Jared Isles formed on October 13. As the area gradually organized, it later acquired a well-defined circulation and tropical storm force-winds, therefore it was classified as a tropical storm and it was given the name Vance. Over the course of the next 24 hours, Vance began to quickly strengthen, and became a hurricane on October 17. Vance later continued to intensify, until it reached a peak of 105 mph while making landfall on Cape Cornwell, a city located on the Granolian Tip. The next day, Vance rapidly weakened over mountainous terrain, and eventually dissipated on October 23.
On October 14, an area of low pressure formed to the south of the precursor low of what would later become Hurricane Vance. The low gradually organized, but due to Vance toward its north, most significant development was hindered. On October 17, the low attained a closed-circulation and was classified as Tropical Depression Twenty-Two. That same day, the depression was upgraaded to Tropical Storm Wendi. Wendi later explosively intensifed into a Category 2 hurricane the next day. Wendi eventually continued to explosively strengthen, until the hurricane peaked with 170 mph winds and a 907 mbar pressure, the strongest of the season, and the third most intense in the Red Ocean. Wendi eventually leveled out in intensity until it made landfall with 160 mph winds after weakening slightly, where its winds were equal to be the strongest hurricane to ever strike the Granolian Tip. Shortly after, like Vance, Wendi rapidly weakened, and on October 22, the hurricane disrupted National Hurricane Center's satellite communications. By October 24, Wendi degenerated into a remnant low as it was re-emerging off of the coast. Redevelopment was not expected due to cold waters and intense wind shear. Wendi's final damage estimate is ~45 billion (USD), and a death count of at least 508, with another 26 being indirect.
On October 17, an area of disturbed weather formed to the west of the Jared Isles. The disturbance later quickly gained organization, and was classified as Tropical Depression Twenty-Three by the NHC, only for them to upgrade it to Tropical Storm Alef two hours later. Alef marked the first time that a name from the backup naming list was used. After only about 22 hours as a tropical storm, Alef rapidly weakened into a tropical depression under the influence of rapidly developing wind shear around the system, partially due to the exiting of MJO out of the region. Alef later dissipated on October 22.
This is a table of the storms in the 2013 Red Ocean hurricane season. It mentions all of the season's storms and their names, landfall(s), peak intensities, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of such being a traffic accident or landslide), but are still related to that storm. The damage and death totals in this list include impacts when the storm was a precursor wave or post-tropical low, and all of the damage figures are in 2013 USD.
The following names will be used for identifying storms in the Red Ocean during 2013. Retired names were announced in the NHC Retirement Convention on November 30. The names not retired from this list will be used again for the 2019 season. This is the same list used in the 2007 season with the exception of Daniel, Emily, and Liam, which respectively replaced Derrick, Emilia, and Larrie, and were used for the first time in 2013. Names that are currently active are marked in bold, and unused names are marked with an asterik (*).
Because of the season's extreme activity, the naming list was exhausted for the second time on record for a Red Ocean hurricane season. Consequently, the Hebrew Alphabet will now be used to name storms. The next three storm names to be used are shown below:
The names chosen to be retired off of the 2013 list were Daniel, Emily, Howie, Liam, Ophelia and Wendi. This year's amount of retired names is the biggest in the satellite era for this basin. The names selected to replace the names are Duncan, Elle, Henry, Luke, Olive, and Wilda.